Eyserbeck, originally from Wörlitz, was trained to be a gardener by his father, the Wörlitz court gardener Johann Friedrich Eyserbeck.
In 1788, after a study trip abroad, Johann Rudolph Eyserbeck was appointed court gardener in Molsdorf.
In 1814, he was transferred to the post of "Obergärtner" at Gotha where he succeeded Christian Heinrich Wehmeyer, who had died in 1812.
It was Eyserbeck who initiated the rearrangement of the Molsdorf Gardens as a landscape park.
He also completed the conversion of the gardens in Gotha into a unified landscape park and furthermore designed the park of the Mönchshof in Gotha-Siebleben. No portrait of Johann Rudolph Eyserbeck is known.